Africa reports first coronavirus fatality


Africa reports first coronavirus fatality after a German tourist, 60, died at a diving resort in Egypt – as people on the continent remain the most resistant to the illness with just 85 infected

  • Patient, 60, showed symptoms of a fever hours after he travelled to Hurghada
  • He arrived in Egypt from Germany a week ago and died in resort town on Sunday
  • Man is the first coronavirus patient to die in Africa, which has 85 cases of virus

A German tourist who arrived in Egypt a week ago has become the first person to die of coronavirus in Africa. 

The patient, 60, showed symptoms of a fever after he travelled from Luxor in southern Egypt to the Hurghada resort town on the Red Sea coast on Friday.

He was checked into Hurghada Hospital later that day, where he was then diagnosed with the deadly virus, Egypt’s Ministry of Health confirmed.

The patient, who had travelled from his native Germany a week ago, reportedly refused to be transferred to the quarantine hospital in Matrouh to be admitted to intensive care, Egypt Today reported. 

A German tourist who arrived in Egypt a week ago has become the first person to die of coronavirus in Africa (Pictured: Egyptians wait to be tested for coronavirus in Cairo)

He was said to have suffered from respiratory failure caused by severe pneumonia before he died on Sunday, Egyptian officials said.

Despite the fatality, Africa has significantly fewer coronavirus cases than Europe, Asia and North America, with only around 85 confirmed across the continent so far.

These have largely been found in Egypt and Algeria, with the former’s health ministry confirming today that 45 cases of the virus originated on board a Nile cruise ship.

A handful of COVID-19 patients have also been diagnosed in Senegal, South Africa, Morocco, Cameroon, Tunisia, Togo and Nigeria. 

The vessel was transporting 171 people, including 101 tourists and 70 Egyptian crew members, according to Prime Minister Mostafa Kamal Madbouly. 

As well as the cruise ship cases, Egypt has diagnosed three others with COVID-19 since February 14.  

The patient, 60, showed symptoms of a fever after he travelled from Luxor in southern Egypt to the Hurghada resort town on the Red Sea coast on Friday (Pictured: Egyptians wait to be tested for coronavirus in Cairo)

The patient, 60, showed symptoms of a fever after he travelled from Luxor in southern Egypt to the Hurghada resort town on the Red Sea coast on Friday (Pictured: Egyptians wait to be tested for coronavirus in Cairo)

A man wearing a protective health mask walks past moored river ships along the bank of the Nile in Luxor, southern Egypt

A man wearing a protective health mask walks past moored river ships along the bank of the Nile in Luxor, southern Egypt

The first sufferer, a Chinese citizen, has recovered and was released from hospital last week.

The other two cases involve a Canadian oil company worker and an Egyptian who had returned home from Serbia through France. They are both still being treated, according to reports.

It comes as Nigeria today confirmed its second coronavirus case.

The first, an Italian man who flew into Legos from Milan on February 24, was in the country for two days before he was placed in isolation in Ogun state.

Egypt's Health Minister Hala Zayed inspects moored river boats along the coast of the Nile in the southern city of Luxor on Sunday

Egypt’s Health Minister Hala Zayed inspects moored river boats along the coast of the Nile in the southern city of Luxor on Sunday

The case, the first in sub-Saharan Africa, prompted fears of an outbreak in Lagos, a city of 20million people.  

Health Minister Osagie Ehanire said the second case had been in contact with the Italian man, who is a vendor working for cement company Lafarge Africa PLC.

He is being treated at a hospital in the Yaba dristict of Lagos.

Health commissioner Akin Abayomi said on Saturday that Nigerian officials were experiencing ‘some challenges’ in tracking down people who were on a Turkish Airlines flight with the Italian.

Germany is now using drive-thru centres to swab patients for coronavirus



Someone who is infected with the coronavirus can spread it with just a simple cough or a sneeze, scientists say.

Nearly 4,000 people with the virus are now confirmed to have died and more than 110,000 have been infected. Here’s what we know so far:

What is the coronavirus? 

A coronavirus is a type of virus which can cause illness in animals and people. Viruses break into cells inside their host and use them to reproduce itself and disrupt the body’s normal functions. Coronaviruses are named after the Latin word ‘corona’, which means crown, because they are encased by a spiked shell which resembles a royal crown.

The coronavirus from Wuhan is one which has never been seen before this outbreak. It has been named SARS-CoV-2 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. The name stands for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2.

Experts say the bug, which has killed around one in 50 patients since the outbreak began in December, is a ‘sister’ of the SARS illness which hit China in 2002, so has been named after it.

The disease that the virus causes has been named COVID-19, which stands for coronavirus disease 2019.

Dr Helena Maier, from the Pirbright Institute, said: ‘Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that infect a wide range of different species including humans, cattle, pigs, chickens, dogs, cats and wild animals. 

‘Until this new coronavirus was identified, there were only six different coronaviruses known to infect humans. Four of these cause a mild common cold-type illness, but since 2002 there has been the emergence of two new coronaviruses that can infect humans and result in more severe disease (Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses). 

‘Coronaviruses are known to be able to occasionally jump from one species to another and that is what happened in the case of SARS, MERS and the new coronavirus. The animal origin of the new coronavirus is not yet known.’ 

The first human cases were publicly reported from the Chinese city of Wuhan, where approximately 11million people live, after medics first started publicly reporting infections on December 31.

By January 8, 59 suspected cases had been reported and seven people were in critical condition. Tests were developed for the new virus and recorded cases started to surge.

The first person died that week and, by January 16, two were dead and 41 cases were confirmed. The next day, scientists predicted that 1,700 people had become infected, possibly up to 7,000.

Just a week after that, there had been more than 800 confirmed cases and those same scientists estimated that some 4,000 – possibly 9,700 – were infected in Wuhan alone. By that point, 26 people had died. 

By January 27, more than 2,800 people were confirmed to have been infected, 81 had died, and estimates of the total number of cases ranged from 100,000 to 350,000 in Wuhan alone.

By January 29, the number of deaths had risen to 132 and cases were in excess of 6,000.  

By February 5, there were more than 24,000 cases and 492 deaths.

By February 11, this had risen to more than 43,000 cases and 1,000 deaths. 

A change in the way cases are confirmed on February 13 – doctors decided to start using lung scans as a formal diagnosis, as well as laboratory tests – caused a spike in the number of cases, to more than 60,000 and to 1,369 deaths.

By February 25, around 80,000 people had been infected and some 2,700 had died. February 25 was the first day in the outbreak when fewer cases were diagnosed within China than in the rest of the world. 

Where does the virus come from?

According to scientists, the virus almost certainly came from bats. Coronaviruses in general tend to originate in animals – the similar SARS and MERS viruses are believed to have originated in civet cats and camels, respectively.

The first cases of COVID-19 came from people visiting or working in a live animal market in Wuhan, which has since been closed down for investigation.

Although the market is officially a seafood market, other dead and living animals were being sold there, including wolf cubs, salamanders, snakes, peacocks, porcupines and camel meat. 

A study by the Wuhan Institute of Virology, published in February 2020 in the scientific journal Nature, found that the genetic make-up virus samples found in patients in China is 96 per cent identical to a coronavirus they found in bats.

However, there were not many bats at the market so scientists say it was likely there was an animal which acted as a middle-man, contracting it from a bat before then transmitting it to a human. It has not yet been confirmed what type of animal this was.

Dr Michael Skinner, a virologist at Imperial College London, was not involved with the research but said: ‘The discovery definitely places the origin of nCoV in bats in China.

‘We still do not know whether another species served as an intermediate host to amplify the virus, and possibly even to bring it to the market, nor what species that host might have been.’  

So far the fatalities are quite low. Why are health experts so worried about it? 

Experts say the international community is concerned about the virus because so little is known about it and it appears to be spreading quickly.

It is similar to SARS, which infected 8,000 people and killed nearly 800 in an outbreak in Asia in 2003, in that it is a type of coronavirus which infects humans’ lungs. It is less deadly than SARS, however, which killed around one in 10 people, compared to approximately one in 50 for COVID-19.

Another reason for concern is that nobody has any immunity to the virus because they’ve never encountered it before. This means it may be able to cause more damage than viruses we come across often, like the flu or common cold.

Speaking at a briefing in January, Oxford University professor, Dr Peter Horby, said: ‘Novel viruses can spread much faster through the population than viruses which circulate all the time because we have no immunity to them.

‘Most seasonal flu viruses have a case fatality rate of less than one in 1,000 people. Here we’re talking about a virus where we don’t understand fully the severity spectrum but it’s possible the case fatality rate could be as high as two per cent.’

If the death rate is truly two per cent, that means two out of every 100 patients who get it will die. 

‘My feeling is it’s lower,’ Dr Horby added. ‘We’re probably missing this iceberg of milder cases. But that’s the current circumstance we’re in.

‘Two per cent case fatality rate is comparable to the Spanish Flu pandemic in 1918 so it is a significant concern globally.’

How does the virus spread?

The illness can spread between people just through coughs and sneezes, making it an extremely contagious infection. And it may also spread even before someone has symptoms.

It is believed to travel in the saliva and even through water in the eyes, therefore close contact, kissing, and sharing cutlery or utensils are all risky. 

Originally, people were thought to be catching it from a live animal market in Wuhan city. But cases soon began to emerge in people who had never been there, which forced medics to realise it was spreading from person to person.

There is now evidence that it can spread third hand – to someone from a person who caught it from another person.

What does the virus do to you? What are the symptoms?

Once someone has caught the COVID-19 virus it may take between two and 14 days, or even longer, for them to show any symptoms – but they may still be contagious during this time.

If and when they do become ill, typical signs include a runny nose, a cough, sore throat and a fever (high temperature). The vast majority of patients will recover from these without any issues, and many will need no medical help at all.

In a small group of patients, who seem mainly to be the elderly or those with long-term illnesses, it can lead to pneumonia. Pneumonia is an infection in which the insides of the lungs swell up and fill with fluid. It makes it increasingly difficult to breathe and, if left untreated, can be fatal and suffocate people.

Figures are showing that young children do not seem to be particularly badly affected by the virus, which they say is peculiar considering their susceptibility to flu, but it is not clear why. 

What have genetic tests revealed about the virus? 

Scientists in China have recorded the genetic sequences of around 19 strains of the virus and released them to experts working around the world. 

This allows others to study them, develop tests and potentially look into treating the illness they cause.   

Examinations have revealed the coronavirus did not change much – changing is known as mutating – much during the early stages of its spread.

However, the director-general of China’s Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Gao Fu, said the virus was mutating and adapting as it spread through people.

This means efforts to study the virus and to potentially control it may be made extra difficult because the virus might look different every time scientists analyse it.   

More study may be able to reveal whether the virus first infected a small number of people then change and spread from them, or whether there were various versions of the virus coming from animals which have developed separately.

How dangerous is the virus?  

The virus has a death rate of around two per cent. This is a similar death rate to the Spanish Flu outbreak which, in 1918, went on to kill around 50million people.

Experts have been conflicted since the beginning of the outbreak about whether the true number of people who are infected is significantly higher than the official numbers of recorded cases. Some people are expected to have such mild symptoms that they never even realise they are ill unless they’re tested, so only the more serious cases get discovered, making the death toll seem higher than it really is.

However, an investigation into government surveillance in China said it had found no reason to believe this was true.

Dr Bruce Aylward, a World Health Organization official who went on a mission to China, said there was no evidence that figures were only showing the tip of the iceberg, and said recording appeared to be accurate, Stat News reported.

Can the virus be cured? 

The COVID-19 virus cannot be cured and it is proving difficult to contain.

Antibiotics do not work against viruses, so they are out of the question. Antiviral drugs can work, but the process of understanding a virus then developing and producing drugs to treat it would take years and huge amounts of money.

No vaccine exists for the coronavirus yet and it’s not likely one will be developed in time to be of any use in this outbreak, for similar reasons to the above.

The National Institutes of Health in the US, and Baylor University in Waco, Texas, say they are working on a vaccine based on what they know about coronaviruses in general, using information from the SARS outbreak. But this may take a year or more to develop, according to Pharmaceutical Technology.

Currently, governments and health authorities are working to contain the virus and to care for patients who are sick and stop them infecting other people.

People who catch the illness are being quarantined in hospitals, where their symptoms can be treated and they will be away from the uninfected public.

And airports around the world are putting in place screening measures such as having doctors on-site, taking people’s temperatures to check for fevers and using thermal screening to spot those who might be ill (infection causes a raised temperature).

However, it can take weeks for symptoms to appear, so there is only a small likelihood that patients will be spotted up in an airport.

Is this outbreak an epidemic or a pandemic?   

The outbreak is an epidemic, which is when a disease takes hold of one community such as a country or region. 

Although it has spread to dozens of countries, the outbreak is not yet classed as a pandemic, which is defined by the World Health Organization as the ‘worldwide spread of a new disease’.

The head of WHO’s global infectious hazard preparedness, Dr Sylvie Briand, said: ‘Currently we are not in a pandemic. We are at the phase where it is an epidemic with multiple foci, and we try to extinguish the transmission in each of these foci,’ the Guardian reported.

She said that most cases outside of Hubei had been ‘spillover’ from the epicentre, so the disease wasn’t actually spreading actively around the world.

Germany is now using drive-thru centres to swab patients for coronavirus



Someone who is infected with the coronavirus can spread it with just a simple cough or a sneeze, scientists say.

Nearly 4,000 people with the virus are now confirmed to have died and more than 110,000 have been infected. Here’s what we know so far:

What is the coronavirus? 

A coronavirus is a type of virus which can cause illness in animals and people. Viruses break into cells inside their host and use them to reproduce itself and disrupt the body’s normal functions. Coronaviruses are named after the Latin word ‘corona’, which means crown, because they are encased by a spiked shell which resembles a royal crown.

The coronavirus from Wuhan is one which has never been seen before this outbreak. It has been named SARS-CoV-2 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. The name stands for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2.

Experts say the bug, which has killed around one in 50 patients since the outbreak began in December, is a ‘sister’ of the SARS illness which hit China in 2002, so has been named after it.

The disease that the virus causes has been named COVID-19, which stands for coronavirus disease 2019.

Dr Helena Maier, from the Pirbright Institute, said: ‘Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that infect a wide range of different species including humans, cattle, pigs, chickens, dogs, cats and wild animals. 

‘Until this new coronavirus was identified, there were only six different coronaviruses known to infect humans. Four of these cause a mild common cold-type illness, but since 2002 there has been the emergence of two new coronaviruses that can infect humans and result in more severe disease (Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses). 

‘Coronaviruses are known to be able to occasionally jump from one species to another and that is what happened in the case of SARS, MERS and the new coronavirus. The animal origin of the new coronavirus is not yet known.’ 

The first human cases were publicly reported from the Chinese city of Wuhan, where approximately 11million people live, after medics first started publicly reporting infections on December 31.

By January 8, 59 suspected cases had been reported and seven people were in critical condition. Tests were developed for the new virus and recorded cases started to surge.

The first person died that week and, by January 16, two were dead and 41 cases were confirmed. The next day, scientists predicted that 1,700 people had become infected, possibly up to 7,000.

Just a week after that, there had been more than 800 confirmed cases and those same scientists estimated that some 4,000 – possibly 9,700 – were infected in Wuhan alone. By that point, 26 people had died. 

By January 27, more than 2,800 people were confirmed to have been infected, 81 had died, and estimates of the total number of cases ranged from 100,000 to 350,000 in Wuhan alone.

By January 29, the number of deaths had risen to 132 and cases were in excess of 6,000.  

By February 5, there were more than 24,000 cases and 492 deaths.

By February 11, this had risen to more than 43,000 cases and 1,000 deaths. 

A change in the way cases are confirmed on February 13 – doctors decided to start using lung scans as a formal diagnosis, as well as laboratory tests – caused a spike in the number of cases, to more than 60,000 and to 1,369 deaths.

By February 25, around 80,000 people had been infected and some 2,700 had died. February 25 was the first day in the outbreak when fewer cases were diagnosed within China than in the rest of the world. 

Where does the virus come from?

According to scientists, the virus almost certainly came from bats. Coronaviruses in general tend to originate in animals – the similar SARS and MERS viruses are believed to have originated in civet cats and camels, respectively.

The first cases of COVID-19 came from people visiting or working in a live animal market in Wuhan, which has since been closed down for investigation.

Although the market is officially a seafood market, other dead and living animals were being sold there, including wolf cubs, salamanders, snakes, peacocks, porcupines and camel meat. 

A study by the Wuhan Institute of Virology, published in February 2020 in the scientific journal Nature, found that the genetic make-up virus samples found in patients in China is 96 per cent identical to a coronavirus they found in bats.

However, there were not many bats at the market so scientists say it was likely there was an animal which acted as a middle-man, contracting it from a bat before then transmitting it to a human. It has not yet been confirmed what type of animal this was.

Dr Michael Skinner, a virologist at Imperial College London, was not involved with the research but said: ‘The discovery definitely places the origin of nCoV in bats in China.

‘We still do not know whether another species served as an intermediate host to amplify the virus, and possibly even to bring it to the market, nor what species that host might have been.’  

So far the fatalities are quite low. Why are health experts so worried about it? 

Experts say the international community is concerned about the virus because so little is known about it and it appears to be spreading quickly.

It is similar to SARS, which infected 8,000 people and killed nearly 800 in an outbreak in Asia in 2003, in that it is a type of coronavirus which infects humans’ lungs. It is less deadly than SARS, however, which killed around one in 10 people, compared to approximately one in 50 for COVID-19.

Another reason for concern is that nobody has any immunity to the virus because they’ve never encountered it before. This means it may be able to cause more damage than viruses we come across often, like the flu or common cold.

Speaking at a briefing in January, Oxford University professor, Dr Peter Horby, said: ‘Novel viruses can spread much faster through the population than viruses which circulate all the time because we have no immunity to them.

‘Most seasonal flu viruses have a case fatality rate of less than one in 1,000 people. Here we’re talking about a virus where we don’t understand fully the severity spectrum but it’s possible the case fatality rate could be as high as two per cent.’

If the death rate is truly two per cent, that means two out of every 100 patients who get it will die. 

‘My feeling is it’s lower,’ Dr Horby added. ‘We’re probably missing this iceberg of milder cases. But that’s the current circumstance we’re in.

‘Two per cent case fatality rate is comparable to the Spanish Flu pandemic in 1918 so it is a significant concern globally.’

How does the virus spread?

The illness can spread between people just through coughs and sneezes, making it an extremely contagious infection. And it may also spread even before someone has symptoms.

It is believed to travel in the saliva and even through water in the eyes, therefore close contact, kissing, and sharing cutlery or utensils are all risky. 

Originally, people were thought to be catching it from a live animal market in Wuhan city. But cases soon began to emerge in people who had never been there, which forced medics to realise it was spreading from person to person.

There is now evidence that it can spread third hand – to someone from a person who caught it from another person.

What does the virus do to you? What are the symptoms?

Once someone has caught the COVID-19 virus it may take between two and 14 days, or even longer, for them to show any symptoms – but they may still be contagious during this time.

If and when they do become ill, typical signs include a runny nose, a cough, sore throat and a fever (high temperature). The vast majority of patients will recover from these without any issues, and many will need no medical help at all.

In a small group of patients, who seem mainly to be the elderly or those with long-term illnesses, it can lead to pneumonia. Pneumonia is an infection in which the insides of the lungs swell up and fill with fluid. It makes it increasingly difficult to breathe and, if left untreated, can be fatal and suffocate people.

Figures are showing that young children do not seem to be particularly badly affected by the virus, which they say is peculiar considering their susceptibility to flu, but it is not clear why. 

What have genetic tests revealed about the virus? 

Scientists in China have recorded the genetic sequences of around 19 strains of the virus and released them to experts working around the world. 

This allows others to study them, develop tests and potentially look into treating the illness they cause.   

Examinations have revealed the coronavirus did not change much – changing is known as mutating – much during the early stages of its spread.

However, the director-general of China’s Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Gao Fu, said the virus was mutating and adapting as it spread through people.

This means efforts to study the virus and to potentially control it may be made extra difficult because the virus might look different every time scientists analyse it.   

More study may be able to reveal whether the virus first infected a small number of people then change and spread from them, or whether there were various versions of the virus coming from animals which have developed separately.

How dangerous is the virus?  

The virus has a death rate of around two per cent. This is a similar death rate to the Spanish Flu outbreak which, in 1918, went on to kill around 50million people.

Experts have been conflicted since the beginning of the outbreak about whether the true number of people who are infected is significantly higher than the official numbers of recorded cases. Some people are expected to have such mild symptoms that they never even realise they are ill unless they’re tested, so only the more serious cases get discovered, making the death toll seem higher than it really is.

However, an investigation into government surveillance in China said it had found no reason to believe this was true.

Dr Bruce Aylward, a World Health Organization official who went on a mission to China, said there was no evidence that figures were only showing the tip of the iceberg, and said recording appeared to be accurate, Stat News reported.

Can the virus be cured? 

The COVID-19 virus cannot be cured and it is proving difficult to contain.

Antibiotics do not work against viruses, so they are out of the question. Antiviral drugs can work, but the process of understanding a virus then developing and producing drugs to treat it would take years and huge amounts of money.

No vaccine exists for the coronavirus yet and it’s not likely one will be developed in time to be of any use in this outbreak, for similar reasons to the above.

The National Institutes of Health in the US, and Baylor University in Waco, Texas, say they are working on a vaccine based on what they know about coronaviruses in general, using information from the SARS outbreak. But this may take a year or more to develop, according to Pharmaceutical Technology.

Currently, governments and health authorities are working to contain the virus and to care for patients who are sick and stop them infecting other people.

People who catch the illness are being quarantined in hospitals, where their symptoms can be treated and they will be away from the uninfected public.

And airports around the world are putting in place screening measures such as having doctors on-site, taking people’s temperatures to check for fevers and using thermal screening to spot those who might be ill (infection causes a raised temperature).

However, it can take weeks for symptoms to appear, so there is only a small likelihood that patients will be spotted up in an airport.

Is this outbreak an epidemic or a pandemic?   

The outbreak is an epidemic, which is when a disease takes hold of one community such as a country or region. 

Although it has spread to dozens of countries, the outbreak is not yet classed as a pandemic, which is defined by the World Health Organization as the ‘worldwide spread of a new disease’.

The head of WHO’s global infectious hazard preparedness, Dr Sylvie Briand, said: ‘Currently we are not in a pandemic. We are at the phase where it is an epidemic with multiple foci, and we try to extinguish the transmission in each of these foci,’ the Guardian reported.

She said that most cases outside of Hubei had been ‘spillover’ from the epicentre, so the disease wasn’t actually spreading actively around the world.

Diane Kruger gets candid about leaving home at a young age as she honours her mother with sweet snap


‘I’m so glad we have this chance to be a family once again!’ Diane Kruger gets candid about leaving home at a young age as she honours her mother with sweet snap on International Women’s Day

She was brought up in Germany with her younger brother, Stefan. 

And on Sunday, Diane Kruger, 43, got candid about leaving home at a young age while honouring her mother, Maria-Theresa Heidkrüger, with a sweet snap on International Women’s Day, adding: ‘I’m so glad we have this chance to be a family once again!’

As a child, Diane wanted to become a ballerina and successfully auditioned for the Royal Ballet School in London, before moving to Paris where she became a model after an injury ended her dancing career.  

Real talk: On Sunday, Diane Kruger, 43, got candid about leaving home at a young age as she honoured her mother, Maria-Theresa Heidkrüger, with a sweet snap on IWD

The In The Fade actress also shared a photograph of her mother cradling her daughter, making sure to black out her child’s face. 

Diane wrote alongside: ‘On #internationalwomensday I want to take a moment to honor my mom. I left home when I was very young, so we missed many years of bonding and becoming “friends”.

‘Since @bigbaldhead and I had our daughter, my mom has become the best mother a girl could ever wish for.

‘She’s been by my side, helping with the baby while I work, washing, cleaning, organizing, cooking …grocery shopping, you name it. 

Heartfelt: Within a heartfelt caption, Diane added: 'I'm so glad we have this chance to be a family once again!'

Heartfelt: Within a heartfelt caption, Diane added: ‘I’m so glad we have this chance to be a family once again!’

Cute!  The actress also shared a photograph of her mother cradling her daughter, making sure to black out her child's face

Cute!  The actress also shared a photograph of her mother cradling her daughter, making sure to black out her child’s face

‘Loving our daughter more than words could describe. Infinite patience and kindness. 

‘I’ve discovered a softness and power in my mom that I can only see now that I’ve become one myself. I’m so lucky to have you mom.

‘Baby girl is so lucky to have such a doting Oma. And I’m so glad we have this chance to be a family once again. I love you,’ followed by a heart emoji.  

Her daughter with partner Norman Reedus turned one in November.

The Inglorious Basterds actress and the Walking Dead actor have not publicly revealed their child’s name and are fiercely protective of her. 

Her love: Kruger's daughter with partner Norman Reedus turned one in November and in October she shared this rare photo of her child

Her love: Kruger’s daughter with partner Norman Reedus turned one in November and in October she shared this rare photo of her child

Couple: The Inglorious Basterds actress and the Walking Dead actor have not publicly revealed their daughter's name and are fiercely protective of her (Pictured in December)

Couple: The Inglorious Basterds actress and the Walking Dead actor have not publicly revealed their daughter’s name and are fiercely protective of her (Pictured in December)

Back in October, Kruger did share a rare photo of her little girl, showing the tot from behind, and describing her in the Instagram caption as ‘My everything.’

The couple met on the set of the film Sky in 2015 and went public with their relationship in 2017.

Reedus is also a father to son Mingus, 20, whom he shares with his former partner, the supermodel Helena Christensen.



Nazi survivors who documented life in Britain


Nazi survivors’ refuge in Britain: How women who emigrated to the UK after escaping persecution in Germany and Austria documented their new lives

  • Stunning images, taken by women who had escaped Nazi persecution, celebrate life in Britain 
  • They came from Germany and Austria, where photography was seen as a more ‘serious’ art form 
  • Photos are being shown at Four Corners gallery, London, until 2 May, to mark Women’s History Month 

Advertisement

From a woman shopping in an east London market to a family curled up on a single bed at home, these stunning images capture British life through the eyes of women who sought refuge on our shores during the war.  

The snapshots were all captured by female photographers who emigrated to the UK in the 1930s to escape Nazi persecution. 

They came from Germany and Austria, where photography was seen as a more ‘serious’ art form and students were better versed in modernist ideas and methods. 

This allowed them to bring a fresh perspective and approach to capturing the workaday struggles of ‘ordinary’ men and women, as well as the indulgent lives of the rich and famous.

The photographs are being shown at Four Corners gallery, in Bethnal Green, London, until 2 May, to mark Women’s History Month.  Here, the gallery shares a selection of photos with FEMAIL readers…    

Photo of a family, in Stepney, east London, 1932. Taken by Edith Tudor-Hart who fled Austria in 1933 to escape Nazi repression for her communist sympathies and Jewish background

Edith Tudor-Hart's photo of a girl shopping in a market that was used for a pamphlet for the National Unemployed Workers Movement. Date unknown

Edith Tudor-Hart’s photo of a girl shopping in a market that was used for a pamphlet for the National Unemployed Workers Movement. Date unknown

An image of a woman shopping in Chapel Market, Islington, in the 1960s

They were taken by Dorothy Bohm, who was sent to school in England from Lithuania in 1939

Images of women shopping in Chapel Market, Islington, in the 1960s, left and right. They were taken by Dorothy Bohm, who was sent to school in England from Lithuania in 1939

Fathers and children attending a class organised by the Mothercraft Training Society, at their centre in Kingston-on-Thames. The photograph was taken by Gerti Deutsch and published in an edition of Picture Post published in 1939

Fathers and children attending a class organised by the Mothercraft Training Society, at their centre in Kingston-on-Thames. The photograph was taken by Gerti Deutsch and published in an edition of Picture Post published in 1939

Elisabeth Chat took this photo of two miners' wives, published in an issue of Picture Post in 1948

A man plays the piano at Caledonian Market, London in 1932

Elisabeth Chat took this photo of two miners’ wives, left, published in an issue of Picture Post in 1948. Right, a man plays the piano at Caledonian Market, London in 1932

One of the young girls from the Canning Town Women's Settlement, looking at some of the work produced by local children concerning their views of the war, including this drawing by Michael Butterworth. Taken by Gerti Deutsch in May 1940

One of the young girls from the Canning Town Women’s Settlement, looking at some of the work produced by local children concerning their views of the war, including this drawing by Michael Butterworth. Taken by Gerti Deutsch in May 1940

Portrait of the American actor Danny Kaye by Lotte Meitner-Graf, date unknown. Meitner-Graf moved to England with her family in 1937, and opened her own studio at 23 Old Bond Street in London in 1953

Portrait of the American actor Danny Kaye by Lotte Meitner-Graf, date unknown. Meitner-Graf moved to England with her family in 1937, and opened her own studio at 23 Old Bond Street in London in 1953

Portrait of Jean Seberg, c. 1960s

The photographer's portrait of Bertrand Russell, date unknown

Portrait of Jean Seberg, c. 1960s, by Lotte Meitner-Graf. Right, the photographer’s portrait of Bertrand Russell, date unknown

This model was photographed at the Bunyard Ader Studio, date unknown. The image appeared in Vogue magazine

This model was photographed at the Bunyard Ader Studio, date unknown. The image appeared in Vogue magazine

Portrait of Jennie Lee, first Arts Minister

American singer Marian Anderson, photographed by Lotte Meitner-Graf, date unknown

Portrait of Jennie Lee, first Arts Minister, left, taken in 1930s by Gerty Simon, who photographed Einstein in Germany before fleeing Nazi persecution. Right, American singer Marian Anderson, photographed by Lotte Meitner-Graf, date unknown

 

Trump brags about his science knowledge because of his ‘super genius uncle’ who was an MIT professor


President Trump on Friday baffled observers while touring the Centers for Disease Control headquarters in Atlanta, where he bragged that he had a predisposition toward science because of his ‘super genius’ uncle.

‘You know my Uncle was a great — he was at MIT,’ the president said while standing next to health officials who are working to contain the outbreak of coronavirus.

‘He taught at MIT for a record number of years. He was a great super genius, Dr. John Trump.’

John G. Trump was an accomplished electrical engineer who went on to become a professor emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

John Trump, who died in 1985 at the age of 77, was the brother of Fred Trump, who founded and built the Trump real estate empire throughout New York.

He was noted for developing rotational radiation therapy, which is used to treat malignant cancers.

John Trump was awarded the National Medal of Science by President Ronald Reagan. 

President Trump is seen above holding up a picture while touring the Centers for Disease Control headquarters in Atlanta on Friday. Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar is seen left. CDC Director Dr. Robert Redfield is seen second from right. Associate Director for Laboratory Science and Safety Steve Monroe is seen far right

Trump, who is holding up a picture of the coronavirus, bragged on Friday that he could have been a doctor

Trump says his 'natural talent' for science is thanks to his late 'super genius' uncle, John G. Trump (seen in the above undated file photo), who was a professor of electrical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Trump says his ‘natural talent’ for science is thanks to his late ‘super genius’ uncle, John G. Trump (seen in the above undated file photo), who was a professor of electrical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

His nephew, the president, spoke of his purported grasp of science on Friday, saying: ‘I like this stuff. I really get it.

‘People are surprised that I understand it.

‘Every one of these doctors said: “How do you know so much about this?”

Maybe I have a natural ability. Maybe I should have done that instead of running for president.’

On social media, the reaction to Trump’s comments was harsh.

One Twitter user wrote: ‘The guy who looked into the sun during a solar eclipse thinks he could have been a research scientist?’

That was a reference to the president looking up at the total eclipse of the sun – the first time in more than 40 years that Americans could see one – in August 2017.

Another Twitter user posted a meme showing Abraham Lincoln, the nation’s 16th president, putting his head in his hand.

Another Twitter user commented: ‘Each clip is worse than the previous one. I can’t take it anymore.’

One Twitter user urged the president to follow his passion for science and pursue a new career, writing: ‘It’s not too late Donnie. Resign right now and apply to MIT!

One Twitter user urged the president to follow his passion for science and pursue a new career, writing: ‘It's not too late Donnie. Resign right now and apply to MIT! Maybe you will get the Nobel Prize!!!!!!’

One Twitter user urged the president to follow his passion for science and pursue a new career, writing: ‘It’s not too late Donnie. Resign right now and apply to MIT! Maybe you will get the Nobel Prize!!!!!!’

Another Twitter user wrote: ‘I am so tired of having a lying, malignant narcissist for a President. But even more than that, I’m SICK of people pandering to him and acting like his behavior is normal’

Another Twitter user wrote: ‘I am so tired of having a lying, malignant narcissist for a President. But even more than that, I’m SICK of people pandering to him and acting like his behavior is normal’

Another Twitter user urged the mainstream media to ‘stop acting like this is normal!’ ‘He’s a sick man and it’s time to stop normalizing him!’

Another Twitter user urged the mainstream media to ‘stop acting like this is normal!’ ‘He’s a sick man and it’s time to stop normalizing him!’

Another Twitter user commented: ‘Each clip is worse than the previous one. I can’t take it anymore.’

Another Twitter user commented: ‘Each clip is worse than the previous one. I can’t take it anymore.’

Another Twitter user posted a meme showing Abraham Lincoln, the nation’s 16th president, putting his head in his hand

Another Twitter user posted a meme showing Abraham Lincoln, the nation’s 16th president, putting his head in his hand

One Twitter user wrote: ‘The guy who looked into the sun during a solar eclipse thinks he could have been a research scientist?’

One Twitter user wrote: ‘The guy who looked into the sun during a solar eclipse thinks he could have been a research scientist?’

‘Maybe you will get the Nobel Prize!!!!!!’

Another Twitter user urged the mainstream media to ‘stop acting like this is normal!’

‘He’s a sick man and it’s time to stop normalizing him!’

Another Twitter user wrote: ‘I am so tired of having a lying, malignant narcissist for a President.

‘But even more than that, I’m SICK of people pandering to him and acting like his behavior is normal.’

The comments about his uncle were one of several made by the president that had people scratching their heads.

Trump also called Jay Inslee, the governor of Washington State, a ‘snake’.

He also said he’d prefer that people exposed to the virus on a cruise ship that is currently in the waters off San Francisco be left aboard so they wouldn’t be added to the count for the nation’s total number of infections.

Trump, wearing his ‘Keep America Great’ campaign hat while discussing the global worry, tried once more to quell growing alarm about the spread of the virus in America.

But he quickly ventured into side matters and political squabbles.

This isn’t the first time that Trump has used his uncle’s name to brag about his knowledge of scientific matters.

In October 2018, the president gave an interview to reporters in the Oval Office during which he boasted of a ‘natural instinct for science.’

Trump was asked at the time about his views on climate change.

Specifically, he was referred to a report issued by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change which stated that the world has 12 years to keep global warming to a maximum of 1.5 degree Celsius.

That was a reference to the president looking up at the total eclipse of the sun - the first time in more than 40 years that Americans could see one - in August 2017

That was a reference to the president looking up at the total eclipse of the sun – the first time in more than 40 years that Americans could see one – in August 2017

Failure to do so puts the globe at greater peril, significantly increasing the risk of devastating floods, droughts, and fires that will affect hundreds of millions of people, the report’s authors say.

The report was written jointly by a group of 91 scientists from 40 countries who based their analyses on more than 6,000 scientific studies.

But Trump, who has said he thought climate change was ‘a hoax,’ refused to budge.

‘You have scientists on both sides of [climate change],’ Trump told the AP.

‘My uncle was a great professor at MIT for many years: Dr. John Trump. And I didn’t talk to him about this particular subject, but I have a natural instinct for science, and I will say that you have scientists on both sides of the picture.’

Trump also said he was ‘truly an environmentalist’ and that he agreed the climate was changing, but that it also ‘goes back and forth, back and forth.’    

Germany and France are condemned by other EU members after blocking the export of medical supplies


Germany and France have been condemned by other EU members after blocking the export of medical supplies, raising the alarm among smaller countries hit by coronavirus. 

Fearing a possible shortage in masks and protective equipment to fight the virus, top European Union officials are urging members to put solidarity above national interests as the disease spreads quickly across the continent. 

Speaking Friday after an urgent meeting in Brussels of health ministers from the 27-country bloc, crisis management commissioner Janez Lenarcic said EU nations are entitled to restrict exports of medical equipment but warned that such decisions could compromise the EU’s ability to manage the growing COVID-19 virus crisis. 

Germany and France have been condemned by other EU members after blocking the export of medical supplies, raising the alarm among smaller countries hit by coronavirus. Pictured: tourists wear protective face masks in Vatican City today

On Wednesday, Germany’s interior minister said it had banned the export of medical protection gear such as masks and gloves to ensure local health workers have enough.

President Emmanuel Macron has announced that France will requisition all face masks produced there, a de facto export ban, and Czech health minister Adam Vojtech has halted disinfectant exports.

Some EU members – notably Italy, where at least 148 people have died – have been hit harder than others and some ministers think precious protective medical gear should be shared.

‘There are legal grounds that make such measures possible, but these kind of unilateral measures first have to be notified to the union,’ EU crisis management commissioner Jenaz Lenarcic said.

‘They have to be proportionate and even if they are legally possible they carry a risk of undermining our collective approach and our collective capacity to handle this crisis.’

President Emmanuel Macron has announced that France will requisition all face masks produced there, a de facto export ban, and Czech health minister Adam Vojtech has halted disinfectant exports

President Emmanuel Macron has announced that France will requisition all face masks produced there, a de facto export ban, and Czech health minister Adam Vojtech has halted disinfectant exports

Ministers from many member states agreed.

‘I think that in fact we should show our solidarity, for example in the distribution of protective resources,’ said Belgian health minister Maggie de Block.

‘There are two countries that block all exports and that’s not in the spirit of the EU.’

Dutch minister for medical care Bruno Bruins also chimed in, telling the crisis meeting: ‘In times of scarcity it is even more important to show solidarity, especially within the EU.’

An EU spokesman confirmed France and Germany had notified the European Commission of their decisions, but would not be drawn on whether they meet EU single market rules.

EU officials have stressed the importance of a coordinated response – health commissioner Stella Kyriakides saying she was focused not only on the readiness of individual states but also ‘the need for solidarity’.

German health minister Jens Spahn (pictured) urged his colleagues to try to understand why Berlin, Paris and Italy are acting as they are, given their bigger outbreaks

German health minister Jens Spahn (pictured) urged his colleagues to try to understand why Berlin, Paris and Italy are acting as they are, given their bigger outbreaks

But German health minister Jens Spahn urged his colleagues to try to understand why Berlin, Paris and Italy are acting as they are, given their bigger outbreaks.

‘I sometimes have the impression that some of you think: ‘Typical, once again the big guys, France, Germany and Italy are going their own way’,’ he said.

‘The reason we are upping the pressure is because the situation is different in our countries than the others. We are in a different phase than those countries who are still detecting and containing cases.

‘Once the outbreak develops inside a country, measures at the border won’t help.’

He said the German decision was an ‘imperfect measure’ and not an export ban as such, but a request for producers to obtain a licence to ship gear that might be better used elsewhere.

French health minister Olivier Veran said: ‘We had seen prices multiplying and items being re-sold on the grey market, believe me, France will not be exempt from showing its duty and will for solidarity.’

Vojtech said supplies of protective suits and masks were limited and that European health workers should be first in line as production is ramped up.

‘We’re trying to negotiate with producers to supply the market, but production is limited. The demand is much higher than the supply worldwide. It is not easy. 

‘We don’t have enough protective masks. The problem is that the demand is much higher than the supply. A third of the world’s production of drugs is located in China and also in India.’ 

The novel coronavirus strain that erupted in China this year and causes the COVID-19 disease has killed more than 3,300 people and infected nearly 100,000 in about 90 nations.

Europe as a whole has not yet been hit as hard as China, but the virus is spreading across the continent and Italy, in particular, has a major outbreak. 

Meteorite reveals liquid water existed in the early Solar System 


Tiny one-inch meteorite that fell to Earth in a ‘spectacular fireball’ proves liquid water existed in the earliest days of the solar system and hints at how the Earth got its oceans

  • The tiny space rock landed on Earth in September 2019  with a ‘loud explosion’
  • It was found in Flensburg in north-Germany and has been named after the town
  • It is just 0.1 ounces in weight but could hold clues to the origin of planet Earth 
  • It contains rare minerals that had to form in liquid water billions of years ago 

A meteorite that fell to Earth in a ‘spectacular fireball’ over Germany in September holds proof that liquid water existed during the earliest days of the solar system.

Experts from Munster University in Germany found that it contained minerals that had to have formed under the presence of water billions of years ago.

The team of planetologists believe it could have come from a larger ‘planetesimal’ class of asteroid that would have made up the building blocks of rocky planets. 

The tiny one-inch meteorite weighs just 0.1 ounces and was named Flensburg after the town where it fell to Earth.

Scroll down for video 

Experts from Munster University in Germany found that the rock contains minerals that had to have formed under the presence of water billions of years ago

The first set of studies into the meteorite show that it contains minerals that formed in the early years of the solar system and required liquid water in order to develop.

This proves that ‘that 4.56 billion years ago there must have been small bodies in the early solar system storing liquid water,’ said researcher Addi Bischoff.

These types of early parent planetary bodies are very rarely discovered by scientists and could be the ‘blocks’ that helped form the inner planets of the solar system.

In fact they could be considered the ‘building blocks’ of the Earth and may well have delivered the water that makes up the oceans that cover the planet today. 

The team at Munster are working with researchers from Berlin on a study of ancient asteroids and other space rocks that made up the early solar system.

It’s called ‘Late Accretion onto Terrestrial Planets’ and is trying to work out exactly how the rocky inner planets of the solar system formed.

‘The major aim is to understand the late growth history of the terrestrial planets,’ the team said in a press release.

One of the areas of study is exactly how the Earth got its water, how the inner core formed and what happened to make it the way it is today.

Planetologists Prof. Addi Bischoff (left) and Markus Patzek with the meteorite 'Flensburg' in front of the scanning electron microscope. It could help researchers discover the origins of planet Earth

Planetologists Prof. Addi Bischoff (left) and Markus Patzek with the meteorite ‘Flensburg’ in front of the scanning electron microscope. It could help researchers discover the origins of planet Earth

In order to find answers to this question, the researchers are investigate various aspects including meteorites that have fallen to Earth.

Most of them are fragments of asteroids and can be regarded as the oldest rocks of our solar system and make them vital for finding what things were like billions of years ago in the earliest days.

‘studying them allows us to gain insight into the formation processes of the first solids and accretion and evolution of small bodies and planets,’ the team said. 

When it landed in September last year it was described as a ‘fireball int he sky accompanied by a bang’ that amazed hundreds of eyewitnesses. 

The research has been published in the journal Meteoritical Bulletin Database. 

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF SPACE ROCKS?

An asteroid is a large chunk of rock left over from collisions or the early solar system. Most are located between Mars and Jupiter in the Main Belt.

A comet is a rock covered in ice, methane and other compounds. Their orbits take them much further out of the solar system.

A meteor is what astronomers call a flash of light in the atmosphere when debris burns up.

This debris itself is known as a meteoroid. Most are so small they are vapourised in the atmosphere.

If any of this meteoroid makes it to Earth, it is called a meteorite.

Meteors, meteoroids and meteorites normally originate from asteroids and comets.

For example, if Earth passes through the tail of a comet, much of the debris burns up in the atmosphere, forming a meteor shower.



Nazi photo album made from HUMAN SKIN of a death camp victim is discovered


A gruesome WWII photo album made from the skin of Nazi death camp victims has been found at a bric-a-brac antiques market in Poland.

The battered WWII album was handed over to staff at the Auschwitz Memorial Museum after the buyer noticed the cover had ‘a tattoo, human hair and a bad smell’.

Museum experts have now analysed the album’s cover and binding and say it is likely that the skin came from an inmate murdered at the Nazi concentration camp Buchenwald, in Germany.

They added that it was ‘without doubt proof of a crime against humanity.’

The WWII photo album (pictured) was made from the skin of Nazi death camp victims, according to museum experts 

The photo album pictured with a notebook. The battered WWII album was handed over to staff at the Auschwitz Memorial Museum after the buyer noticed the cover had 'a tattoo, human hair and a bad smell'

The photo album pictured with a notebook. The battered WWII album was handed over to staff at the Auschwitz Memorial Museum after the buyer noticed the cover had ‘a tattoo, human hair and a bad smell’

Experts say the book is 'without doubt proof of a crime against humanity'

Experts say the book is ‘without doubt proof of a crime against humanity’

Set up in 1937 as Hitler’s first concentration camp, Buchenwald gained notoriety for its executions, experiments, bestial conditions and the depravity of its guards.

Among them was Isle Koch, known to inmates as the ‘Bitch of Buchenwald’, who later became the inspiration for the character of Nazi camp guard Hanna Schmitz in the award-winning film The Reader starring Kate Winslet.

The wife of camp commandant Karl-Otto Koch, Isle Koch is said to have had male prisoners with interesting tattoos murdered and then had their skin turned into interior designs.

Her interests included lampshades, books, albums, table covers and thumbs which were used as light switches.

Witnesses say she was helping Nazi doctor Erich Wagner who collected human skin at the camp for his PhD thesis.

From the 100-odd skins Wagner harvested, many were turned into gift items.

After being captured by American troops at the end of the war, he escaped and continued to practice medicine in Germany under a pseudonym until his recapture in 1958.

He committed suicide a year later.

According to accounts by Buchenwald survivors, human skin was treated as material for the production of everyday objects, including book bindings and wallets.

Former inmate Karol Konieczny recalled: ‘I bound things in covers received from my colleagues from the camp bookbinding workshop.

Isle Koch (pictured) was known to inmates as the 'Bitch of Buchenwald', and later became the inspiration for the character of Nazi camp guard Hanna Schmitz in the award-winning film The Reader starring Kate Winslet

Isle Koch (pictured) was known to inmates as the ‘Bitch of Buchenwald’, and later became the inspiration for the character of Nazi camp guard Hanna Schmitz in the award-winning film The Reader starring Kate Winslet

A collection of Buchenwald prisoners' internal organs including two human heads remains (upper left) and also examples of tattooed skins (foreground)

A collection of Buchenwald prisoners’ internal organs including two human heads remains (upper left) and also examples of tattooed skins (foreground)

‘Of course, as one can easily guess, the covers were made of human skins, which came from the ‘resources’ of the SS.

‘The idea was to secure documents of Nazi bestiality and genocide.’

Head of the Auschwitz Museum Collections, Elzbieta Cajzer, said: ‘The research suggests that it is very likely that both covers, owing to their technology and composition, came from the same bookbinding workshop.

‘The use of human skin as a production material is directly associated with the figure of Ilse Koch, who, along with her husband, inscribed her name in history as the murderer from the camp in Buchenwald.’

Despite the evidence against her, ‘The Bitch of Buchenwald’ was acquitted of the charges at the Nuremberg trials.

As part of their analysis, museum researchers carried out a comparative analysis with a notebook in their collection, also made from the skin of Holocaust victims.

Isle Koch at the Nuremberg Trials. Despite the evidence against her, 'The Bitch of Buchenwald' was acquitted of the charges at the trials

Isle Koch at the Nuremberg Trials. Despite the evidence against her, ‘The Bitch of Buchenwald’ was acquitted of the charges at the trials

Cajzer said: ‘The comparative analysis revealed the content of human skin and very similar amounts of polyamide 6 and polyamide 6.6.

‘The content of polymers used for the production of synthetic fibres is all the more important because they were invented no later than in 1935.

‘The information allows us to determine when the cover was created. During the Second World War, polyamides were a technical novelty, and access to them was limited.’

The album contained over 100 photos and postcards, consisting mainly of views and panoramas.

According to the museum’s research, the album originally belonged to a Bavarian family that ran a guest-house in a health resort town during WWII.

It was most likely given to the owners as a gift by a guard at the Buchenwald camp.

What was Buchenwald death camp? Nazi prison where 250,000 men, women and children suffered unimaginable horrors

It was one of the largest concentration camps in Nazi Germany, where tens of thousands died and prisoners were subjected to astonishingly cruel medical experiments.

More than 250,000 men, women and children from across Europe were held at Buchenwald, near the German city of Weimar, from its opening in 1937 until its closure eight years later.

Some 56,000 people, including Jews, homosexuals, Roma and Soviet prisoners, are believed to have died within its walls. Inmates also included the mentally ill, people left physically disabled from birth defects and religious and political prisoners.

Surrounded by an electrified barbed-wire fence, watchtowers and sentries, captives lived in terrible conditions with many starving to death or succumbing to disease.

More than 250,000 from across Europe were held at Buchenwald, near the German city of Weimar, from its opening in 1937 until its closure eight years later

Some 56,000 people, including Jews, homosexuals, Roma and Soviet prisoners, are believed to have died within its walls. Inmates also included the mentally ill, people left physically disabled from birth defects and religious and political prisoners

Some 56,000 people, including Jews, homosexuals, Roma and Soviet prisoners, are believed to have died within its walls. Inmates also included the mentally ill, people left physically disabled from birth defects and religious and political prisoners

Most of the early inmates were political prisoners, but following the Kristallnacht attacks in 1938 almost 10,000 Jews were sent to Buchenwald and subjected to unimaginably cruel treatment

Most of the early inmates were political prisoners, but following the Kristallnacht attacks in 1938 almost 10,000 Jews were sent to Buchenwald and subjected to unimaginably cruel treatment

Written in the camp’s main entrance gate was the motto ‘Jedem das Seine’, meaning ‘to each his own’ – a phrase that has become controversial in modern day Germany.

Most of the early inmates were political prisoners, but following the Kristallnacht attacks in 1938 almost 10,000 Jews were sent to Buchenwald and subjected to unimaginably cruel treatment.

Medical experiments were carried out on inmates from 1941 – some of which involved testing the effectiveness of vaccines and attempting to ‘cure’ homosexuality through hormonal transplants.

About 112,000 prisoners were there by February 1945 as the war was coming to an end and it became an important source of forced labour for the Nazis, who opened a rail siding there to enable the movement of war supplies.

Medical experiments were carried out on inmates from 1941 - some of which involved testing the effectiveness of vaccines and attempting to 'cure' homosexuality through hormonal transplants

Medical experiments were carried out on inmates from 1941 – some of which involved testing the effectiveness of vaccines and attempting to ‘cure’ homosexuality through hormonal transplants

Dwight D. Eisenhower, at the time the supreme commander of the Allied Forces, visited the camp after its liberation and later wrote of the horrors he witnessed: 'Nothing has ever shocked me as much as that sight'. Pictured: The reconstructed fence and main gate as it appears today

Dwight D. Eisenhower, at the time the supreme commander of the Allied Forces, visited the camp after its liberation and later wrote of the horrors he witnessed: ‘Nothing has ever shocked me as much as that sight’. Pictured: The reconstructed fence and main gate as it appears today

The SS shot prisoners in the stables and hanged others in the crematorium.

Some 21,000 prisoners were freed by US forces in April 1945 – but 28,000 were evacuated by the Germans in the days prior to the liberation, a third of whom died from exhaustion or being shot.

Shocking scenes were witnessed by US troops who found starving survivors and piles of emaciated corpses.

Dwight D. Eisenhower, at the time the supreme commander of the Allied Forces, visited the camp after its liberation and later wrote of the horrors he witnessed: ‘Nothing has ever shocked me as much as that sight.’

Between 1945 and 1950, the site was used by the Soviet Union as a special camp for Nazi prisoners.

Today, its remains serve as a memorial to those who died.

 

 

Winona Ryder is elegant in a black dress as she leads the stars of HBO’s The Plot Against America


Her new miniseries details an alternate history of the United States in the 1940s in which the anti-Semite Charles Lindbergh won the presidency and partnered with Nazi Germany.

Winona Ryder was fittingly dressed in black for the premiere of the chilling HBO limited series The Plot Against America on Wednesday in New York City.

The 48-year-old actress was joined by her co-stars on the show, including John Turturro, 63, and Zoe Kazan, 36.

Back in black: Winona Ryder looked classy in all-black at the premiere of her new HBO miniseries The Plot Against America in New York City on Wednesday

Winona looked effortlessly elegant in her black dress, which featured long sleeves and nearly reached to the ground.

She rounded out her ensemble with a chunky pair of black boots, and she had her brunette locks styled straight and draped down her back. 

The Age Of Innocence star also made a small tribute to the late Philip Roth, who wrote the novel The Plot Against America.

Though she appeared to be carrying a hardcover copy of his book The Great American Novel (1973), she had hollowed out the book and placed a denim clutch between the covers.

Covered up: Winona looked effortlessly elegant in her black dress, which featured long sleeves and nearly reached to the ground

Covered up: Winona looked effortlessly elegant in her black dress, which featured long sleeves and nearly reached to the ground

Memorial: She paid tribute to the late Philip Roth by hollowing out a hardcover copy of his 1973 book The Great American Novel and placing a denim clutch between the covers

Memorial: She paid tribute to the late Philip Roth by hollowing out a hardcover copy of his 1973 book The Great American Novel and placing a denim clutch between the covers

Winona plays one of the main roles in the adaptation of Roth’s 2004 novel.

Roth, who died in 2018, wrote the critically acclaimed book from his viewpoint as a child in the early 1940s, but in an alternate history in which the anti-Semitic aviator Charles Lindbergh was elected to the presidency, denying Franklin D. Roosevelt a third term.

Rather than entering the Second World War, Lindbergh strikes up an alliance with Nazi Germany and Adolf Hitler, and Jews living in the US are subjected to an organized campaign of discrimination and displacement.

HBO’s new adaptation was created by The Wire’s David Simon and Ed Burns and will premiere on March 16.

Winona plays Evelyn Finkel, who marries Rabbi Lionel Bengelsdorf (played by John Turturro, a collaborationist who is a supporter of Lindbergh.

John beamed at the premiere while wearing a black suit and going tie-free. 

Alternate history: Roth's The Plot Against America (2004) is part memoir of his life as a child and part alternate history, in which the anti-Semite Charles Lindbergh defeats Franklin D. Roosevelt for the presidency in 1940

Alternate history: Roth’s The Plot Against America (2004) is part memoir of his life as a child and part alternate history, in which the anti-Semite Charles Lindbergh defeats Franklin D. Roosevelt for the presidency in 1940

Timely: Winona stars as Evelyn Finkel, who marries Rabbi Lionel Bengelsdorf (John Turturro), a collaborationist who supports Lindbergh even as he allies with Nazi Germany

Timely: Winona stars as Evelyn Finkel, who marries Rabbi Lionel Bengelsdorf (John Turturro), a collaborationist who supports Lindbergh even as he allies with Nazi Germany

Low key: John beamed at the premiere while wearing a black suit and going tie-free

Low key: John beamed at the premiere while wearing a black suit and going tie-free

Fast friends: Winona and John looked like old pals as they hit the red carpet

Fast friends: Winona and John looked like old pals as they hit the red carpet

Actress Zoe Kazan glowed at the premiere in a lustrous olive dress.

She wore her blonde hair in a blunt cut bob with prominent bangs, as well as a pointy pair of black heels.

She stars as  Elizabeth “Bess” Levin, the mother of the stand-in for Roth’s character who has to keep her family together even as they’re ostracized by society.

Zoe also posed with her co-star Morgan Spector, who plays her husband, Herman Levin.

He rocked a thick beard and a stylish blue tuxedo with black lapels.

Shimmering: Actress Zoe Kazan glowed at the premiere in a lustrous olive dress

Shimmering: Actress Zoe Kazan glowed at the premiere in a lustrous olive dress

Chic: She wore her blonde hair in a blunt cut bob with prominent bangs, as well as a pointy pair of black heels

Chic: She wore her blonde hair in a blunt cut bob with prominent bangs, as well as a pointy pair of black heels

Tough position: She stars as Elizabeth "Bess" Levin, the mother of the stand-in for Roth's character who has to keep her family together even as they're ostracized by society

Tough position: She stars as Elizabeth “Bess” Levin, the mother of the stand-in for Roth’s character who has to keep her family together even as they’re ostracized by society

On-screen couple: Zoe also posed with her co-star Morgan Spector (R), who plays her husband, Herman Levin

On-screen couple: Zoe also posed with her co-star Morgan Spector (R), who plays her husband, Herman Levin

Dapper: He rocked a stylish midnight blue tuxedo

Dapper: He rocked a stylish midnight blue tuxedo

Stylish: Morgan's suit featured black lapels, and he sported a thick beard

Stylish: Morgan’s suit featured black lapels, and he sported a thick beard

Morgan was joined by his wife, Vicky Christina Barcelona star Rebecca Hall.

The English actress was dressed in a patterned black dress and wore her dark hair in a wavy bob.

Broadway star Michael Cerveris rocked a tan jacket with a black shirt and jeans.

Numb3rs actor David Krumholtz wore a powder blue suit, while his wife Vanessa Britting had on a red leopard print–style dress.

Cute couple: Morgan was joined by his wife, Vicky Christina Barcelona star Rebecca Hall

Cute couple: Morgan was joined by his wife, Vicky Christina Barcelona star Rebecca Hall

Stunning: The English actress was dressed in a patterned black dress and wore her dark hair in a wavy bob

Stunning: The English actress was dressed in a patterned black dress and wore her dark hair in a wavy bob

Casual: Broadway star Michael Cerveris rocked a tan jacket with a black shirt and jeans

Casual: Broadway star Michael Cerveris rocked a tan jacket with a black shirt and jeans

Beaming: Numb3rs actor David Krumholtz wore a powder blue suit, while his wife Vanessa Britting had on a red leopard print–style dress

Beaming: Numb3rs actor David Krumholtz wore a powder blue suit, while his wife Vanessa Britting had on a red leopard print–style dress

Costumer designer and stylist Jeriana San Juan put on a stylish display in a scarlet coat with a black collar decorated with floral designs and a white shirt with matching jeans and boots.

Actress Kristen Sieh complemented her with a white tank top with a frayed hem and scarlet slacks.

Ben Cole and Caroline Kaplan posed together on the red carpet as the villainous couple of Lindbergh and his wife Anne Morrow Lindbergh.

He wore a smart charcoal suit with a slim black tie, while she glowed in a gold dress.

David Simon, the show’s co-creator, looked dapper in a black pinstripe suit and a pink shirt.

He’s best known for creating The Wire and The Deuce for HBO, as well as for writing the book that was the basis for NBC’s long-running crime series Homicide: Life On The Street.

Woman in red: Costumer designer Jeriana San Juan put on a stylish display in a scarlet coat with a black collar and a white shirt with matching jeans and boots

Woman in red: Costumer designer Jeriana San Juan put on a stylish display in a scarlet coat with a black collar and a white shirt with matching jeans and boots

Unmissable: Actress Kristen Sieh complemented her with a white tank top with a frayed hem and scarlet slacks

Unmissable: Actress Kristen Sieh complemented her with a white tank top with a frayed hem and scarlet slacks

Villainous couple: Ben Cole wore a charcoal suit while Caroline Kaplan had on a lustrous gold dress. They play Lindbergh and his wife Anne Morrow Lindbergh

Villainous couple: Ben Cole wore a charcoal suit while Caroline Kaplan had on a lustrous gold dress. They play Lindbergh and his wife Anne Morrow Lindbergh

Classy: David Simon, the show's co-creator, looked dapper in a black pinstripe suit and a pink shirt

Classy: David Simon, the show’s co-creator, looked dapper in a black pinstripe suit and a pink shirt